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Related to Galea aponeurotica: Epicranial aponeurosis
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  • noun

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an organ shaped like a helmet

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Although the deeper galea aponeurotica is also mainly membranous, it contains the occipitofrontalis muscles.
Image 2 shows a stepped dissection of the cranial fascial layers, including the visible layers of the arachnoid mater just superficial to the brain; the dura mater; the bony cranium; pericranium; galea aponeurotica (with the muscle fibers of frontalis and occipitalis visible anteriorly and posteriorly); and the superficial fascia of the scalp presented continuous with the skin.
Because the galea aponeurotica contains the muscle fibers of frontalis (Image 4) and occipitalis, engaging active and exaggerated eye, brow, and face movements deepens and extends the fascial release.
This occurs when emissary veins are damaged and blood accumulates in the potential space between the galea aponeurotica (epicranial aponeurosis) and the periosteum of the skull (pericraniaum).
20] Allen and Johnston believe that 1) optimal closure of a scalp flap requires two layers, 2) that flaps must not be closed under tension, so as to avoid ischemia at the suture line, and 3) that the closure of the galea aponeurotica should be separated from a second suture line through dermis [21] They suggest that minimizing scalp flap necrosis depends on 1) careful handling of the flap intraoperatively (excess manipulation or prolonged angulation after reflection can cause ischemia), 2) not using Raney clips (to avoid skin-edge ischemia), 3) assuring a good vascular supply by closing the wound with minimal tension (with the use of relaxing incisions and flap undercutting if necessary), and 4) avoiding tight dressings postoperatively.