capital gain

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the amount by which the selling price of an asset exceeds the purchase price

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In addition, we think relatively more emphasis should be placed on the idea that the gains from trade are limited by the extent of the market, and that trade restrictions destroy value.
As Adam Smith noted, the gains from trade are limited by the extent of the market.
If "real cost" is measured in terms of labor, Ricardo's interpretation is consistent with what Jacob Viner called the "eighteenth-century rule" for the gains from trade, according to which "it pays to import commodities from abroad whenever they can be obtained in exchange for exports at a smaller real cost than their production at home would entail" (Viner 1937, p.
Ricardo now uses Figure 2 to illustrate graphically these gains from trade in terms of labor saved.
My own reckoning is that taking all these gains into account pushes the gains from trade liberalization up to several percentage points of global GDP.
Summarizing: the half-a-dozen complexities of the real world pointed to above remind us of both the large potential gains from trade and the degrees of strategic freedom that individual countries can avail of in pursuing them.
The overall themes are comparative advantage in a changing global economy, international trade and economic growth, the gains from trade and globalization, and computational modeling and trade policy analysis.
Adam Smith's theory of the gains from trade has caused a great deal of controversy among economic theorists.
At the same time, they diverted attention away from economics and onto diplomacy by stressing the geopolitical gains from trade agreements - notably, cementing the Western alliance and keeping Third World countries from defecting to the Soviet camp.
In the market setting, it is the potential for gains from trade that encourages cooperation," the authors point out.
Their topics include Brazilian trade policy and the US, a history of trade relations between Canada and the US, a quantitative assessment of the inter-war Australian trade policies using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach, Austrian economic policy challenges of gains from trade, skill distribution and systems of cities in a north-south trade model, a progress report on the Middle East Free Trade Area, and regional trade blocks in a non-cooperative network.
It was Smith who separated the politics of winning and losing from the problem of establishing the gains from trade.
The theory says that even a nation that is less efficient in every industry will achieve gains from trade, and so will a nation that is more efficient at everything.