The basipterygium and coracoid are the least abundant of all identified Gadidae elements, but they are extremely fragile.
Figure 3c shows this pattern is not a product of identification bias, with only 56 penultimate and 34 ultimate vertebrae in the entire Gadidae assemblage.
The vast majority (174 articulations from 23 contexts) were sections of vertebral column (Figures 4 & 5): 88 cod, 4 pollack, 32 saith, 2 haddock, 4 torsk, 33 ling, 8 other Gadidae (including combined taxa), 1 hake and 2 gurnard.
In total, 215 Gadidae specimens exhibited clearly identifiable butchery marks, distinct grooves with V-shaped cross-sections (Blumenschine et al.
Cod cleithra appear slightly under-represented, but many specimens could only be identified to the category Gadidae.
When Gadidae taxa are combined (Figure 9c), all but the first vertebra and posterior caudal vertebrae are slightly better represented than skull bones -- evidence that a mixture of decapitated and whole fish (many probably cod, which dominate the QC1 assemblage) were transported to the site.
The distribution of Gadus/Pollachius vertebrae could represent both taphonomic and behavioural information -- the latter obscured by haddock elements in the combined Gadidae data-set.
Zooarchaeologists have sometimes chosen not to identify all Gadidae vertebrae to species (e.
1997): 1) cephalopods: squid and octopus; 2) flatfish: Pleuronectidae; 3) forage fish: Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), Pacific sandlance (Ammodytes hexapterus), eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus), and capelin (Mallotus villosus); 4) gadids: walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), and other Gadidae
, 5) hexagrammids: Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) and other Hexagrammidae; 6) salmon: Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.