These characteristics are neither text-specific nor dialect-specific in the corpus and show that DARE did not display the regularities that could be expected of a full verb.
Taeymans (2004: 102) states that in Present-Day English DARE can behave like a full verb, a modal or a blend of the two, and indicates that "the blending of properties from more than one class is not unusual: it is indicative of forms in the process of being re-assigned to a different category".
Fischer 1992: 405), while most full verbs underwent the process of adopting the to-infinitive in the Middle English period.
An important piece of evidence for our proposal is the fact that the A-not-A form of the full verb is incompatible with the so-called ba-construction.
21) Note that ba and ba-mei-ba, respectively, occupy exactly the same head position of a higher V'-shell into which the full verb has to be raised in the default case outlined under (9).
First, consider examples like the following, in which the "assertive" question operator shi-bu-shi and the full verb are adjacent to each other:
22) A characteristic that both Cantonese bei6 and Mandarin bei share is that they cannot be used as full verbs.
Unlike bei in Mandarin, both jiao and rang can be used as full verbs and causative verbs.
Based on all these considerations, I assume that the passive verbal elements in Chinese were born of full verbs through grammaticalization in varying speeds and directions.