Carmen's resulting filmic discourse, therefore, never truly leaves the confines of a space dictated by the male gaze, vis-a-vis the contemporary patriarchal Francoist
At the time, his Francoist
colleagues called him a turncoat and the main opposition Socialists accused him of opportunism.
Founded in 1934 as the women's branch of the Falange, female members were placed in positions of power over other women, indoctrinating them with Francoist
beliefs about religion, gender roles, and morality.
Curiously, as Marsha Kinder argues, the contrast that we discern in this film between the Neorealist social images and the glamorous Hollywood atmosphere is "analogous to that familiar Spanish contrast between realistic depiction and false idealization that can be traced back to Golden Age writers like Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca, and Quevedo and that was particularly vivid in Francoist
Spain in the aftermath of both the Spanish Civil War and World War II" (19).
It fascinated me that Maria Jaen was able to discuss this separation without affectation, neither demonizing the Francoist
sentimental education nor glorifying the supposed "free love" of the eighties.
Chapter three discusses four films that contrast rural and urban spaces in an attempt to deconstruct Francoist
ideological views which traditionally portrayed the rural as an idyllic locus--representing national identity--and portrayed the industrialized city as an "urban nightmare" (49).
Goyescas: Picturing Defiance and Consent in Early Francoist
Memory Beyond the Public Sphere: The Francoist
Repression Remembered in Aragon.
Here, too, Grugel and Rees discern stages of evolution, with struggles within the authoritarian coalition in the early 1950s giving way to protests by more autonomous social forces in the 1960s and intensifying in the Francoist
state's final years.
A liberated woman whose mother and siblings had been unable to escape from Francoist
Spain, Aniella reveals the nature of the hoped-for gift at the end of the story: she plans to "divorce" her family in Mexico and return to Spain.
Thus, unlike social-realistic works, these novels undermine any attempt, Francoist
or leftist, to create a whole, resolved version of history.
Examining the tourist boom in Francoist
Spain in the 1960s, Crumbaugh (Spanish, Mount Holyoke College) argues that tourism became implicated in Spanish governance through representations of the industry within Spain, narratives of "cultural revolution" associated with the tourism boom, and representations of the Franco dictatorship's management of the tourism industry.
The sprightly musicals starring Andalusian singers and dancers (the folkloricas) like Carmen Sevilla, Lola Flores, Estrellita Castro and Paquita Rico, which had been audience favorites during the 1940s and 1950s, gave way in the post-Franco era to a dearth of perspectives on Andalusia, even those that could have continued in the escapist vein of Francoist
a Marxist militia; Esmond Romilly, a British socialist who fought with the international brigades; journalist Martha Gellhorn, who accompanied Hemingway to Spain and reported on the conflict for Collier's Weekly; and surrealist painter Salvador Dali, whose perceived insufficient opposition to fascism and eventual decision to live in Spain under Francoist
rule was a bone of bitter contention for many of his former colleagues.
That is to say, many of their films incorporate a repressed historical memory, suggesting their reaction against Francoist
ideol ogy and oppositional cinema (the Other) in their search for a contemporary identity (the One).