Table 1 Effect of bolus consumption of green tea on plasma flavanol
concentration, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress.
Italian researchers reviewed a number of studies investigating how cocoa flavanols
affected various cognitive domains.
The findings suggested that attention, brain processing speed, working memory, and fluency of speech in the elderly can all be improved by a daily dose of flavanol
Although randomized controlled trials investigating the acute effect of cocoa flavanols
are sparse, most of them point towards a beneficial effect on cognitive performance.
Since vanillin reacts with free carbons C6 and C8 of the A ring of flavanols
, the decrease of low molecular weight proanthocyanidins reactive toward vanillin is consistent with the minor presence of nucleophile sites on flavanol
molecules due to the significant effect of OTR of closures.
Sixty-two Korean women (aged 43-86 years) with moderately photoaged skin and visible facial wrinkles were randomly assigned to receive, in double-blind fashion, a daily cocoa beverage that contained 320 mg of cocoa flavanols
or a placebo beverage for 24 weeks.
Cocoa's high polyphenol concentration, especially the Flavanol
monomer/polymer catechin (-)-epicatechin and its metabolite epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase to elevate levels of NO.
Dark chocolate contains flavanols
, compounds that act as powerful antioxidants.
Studies have also shown that prolonged cocoa flavanol
consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects .
Researchers concluded regular cocoa flavanol
consumption among moderately photo-aged women had positive effects on facial wrinkles and elasticity.
Others showed that the pH was lowest and tannin, flavanol
, and phenol contents were highest in fruit fly-resistant genotypes of bitter gourd (Gogi et al.
maker of CocoaVia supplement, has been a leader in cocoa flavanol
makers of the CocoaVia supplement, has been a leader in cocoa flavanol
Challenging Messerli's suggestion than the Nobel-chocolate link may be the effect of flavanols
in the chocolate which are known to enhance memory and other cognitive skills, they point out that figures for other flavanol
-rich foodstuffs, such as tea and wine, show no correlation with Nobel Prizes.
In March 2015, the court ruled that the plaintiff did not present sufficient evidence to show that the statement "natural source of flavanol
antioxidants" was "likely to mislead reasonable consumers.