Pope Pius IX had similarly decreed in 1869 that his death would automatically terminate the first Vatican Council
, again with a view to preventing council members from taking the initiative in electing his successor.
The Old Holy Catholic Church was created in the wake of the First Vatican Council
in the 19th century after a group of bishops in Holland left the Roman Catholic Church in a dispute over papal infallibility.
Though one can certainly sympathize with Melkite historians when they speak of an imprudent Latinizing diminution of the historic patrimony of their church, there simply is, it must be said, no such thing as a homogeneous doctrine of the papacy, its theory and practice, in the first Christian millennium against which the notions of universally primatial jurisdiction and infallible teaching authority, as promulgated at the First Vatican Council
, can be judged and found wanting.
In any event, there were several important developments in the Roman Church, beginning with the decision of the First Vatican Council
in 1870 to proclaim the infallibility of the Pope.
Peter's--is known for the First Vatican Council
, promulgation of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and defining the dogma of Papal Infallibility.
In the historical part of his book, Powell compared and contrasted four Roman Catholic interpretations of infallibility: two of these interpreters, Henry Edward Manning (1808-1892) and John Henry Newman (1801-1890) were contemporaries of the First Vatican Council
(1869-1870), which defined the doctrine.
The longest-serving pope in history, Pius IX (1846-78), presided over the First Vatican Council
(papal infallibility), published the Syllabus of Errors (condemning major developments of the modern world), and lost the Papal States in a conflict with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.
Debate over the reach of infallibility has swirled ever since the First Vatican Council
in the 19th century, and has become steadily more intense since the early 1980s.
The first Vatican Council
met roughly ninety years earlier and served to centralize power on the pope.
There is no reference to the First Vatican Council
, though Walsh did win a prize for an essay on papal infallibility in the later 1860s.
The pope was declared to be infallible only at the very late date of 1870, at the First Vatican Council
, and Catholics have differed in bona fide about what part of papal teaching, if any, should be considered infallible.
The Lusitanian church was formed in 1880 by a group of Portuguese Roman Catholics who could not accept the decisions of the First Vatican Council
in 1870, especially the universal authority of the Pope.
The Second Vatican Council (1962 -1965) discussed the same question--without McBrien's antagonistic overtones of pitting one against the other--by emphasizing "episcopal collegiality" complementing the discussion of the first Vatican Council
(1869-1870) in defining papal infallibility.
few Roman Catholic theologians today would interpret the teaching of the First Vatican Council
to mean that "the Holy Spirit speaks through the pope as a designated channel" (p.
Just as in the 11th-century East-West schism, in the Reformation and in the First Vatican Council
, the Roman thirst for power divides Christianity and damages its own church.