References in periodicals archive ?
These creeds, he believes, inevitably led to the emergence of more decentralized political structures such as the feudal monarchies of the medieval West, the "first" Byzantine Commonwealth of late antiquity (Byzantium and its Christian client states of Georgia, Armenia, Nubia, and Ethiopia), the "second" Byzantine Commonwealth of the Middle Ages (Byzantium and the independent states of the Slavic World), and the Islamic Commonwealth.