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To understand the ideological significance and overture of the German-Yugoslav labour migration policies of the 1960s it is important to recall that the Yugoslav communist's attitude towards labour migration as well as the political bilateral relations between the FR Germany and Yugoslavia in the 1950s until 1968 were rather negative.
After recruiting workers from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, Tunisia and Morocco, the German government signed its last recruitment agreement with Yugoslavia on 12 October 1968, ensuring that cheap labour from a socialist country would enter the FR Germany in huge numbers with legal status, social insurance and a temporary, non-immigrant status.
Although the quantity of remigration of labour migrants is difficult to estimate validly on the basis of official statistics of the FR Germany as well as Yugoslav and Croatian statistics (41), empirical studies about migration and remigration of former labour migrants from Germany to Croatia confirm that the question of return still matters and that remigration or commuter migration is often taking place when the retirement age of the former labour migrants is reached.
In the FR Germany using the term "Gastarbeiter" (guestworkers) to denote former labour migrants is no longer accurate, as many former "guests" have become permanent residents.
The "Hellas-Express" was the first direct railway connection between the FR Germany and Greece via SFR Yugoslavia from 1963 to 1991.