The questionnaire contains 28 items which consist of seven subscales, comprising three types of intrinsic motivation (to know, to accomplish things and to experience stimulation), three types of extrinsic motivation
(external, introjected, identified regulation) and a motivation.
According to Robert Vallerand, extrinsic motivation
can be defined as doing something as a means to an end, or doing something for reinforcement or reward.
It is important to note that one type of motivation can be merged with another type or can be transformed into another type: a learner may begin learning English having been forced to learn it by his/her employer but may gradually discover that he/she enjoys learning it thus changing the extrinsic motivation
into the intrinsic one.
The mean scores of total academic motivation, extrinsic motivation
and intrinsic component were 103.
prompt--they produce extrinsic motivation
in the agent by making a
The scale consisted of 24 items in total, of which 12 items measured intrinsic (IM) and 12 extrinsic motivation
As Ryan and Deci explained, "intrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, and extrinsic motivation
refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome.
In this sense, the highest average scores for physical education students were found in the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) as well as in integrated, identified and introjected extrinsic motivation
, in contrast to external motivation and amotivation.
Also, Vecchio (1991) described extrinsic motivation
as "extrinsic rewards pay or fringe benefits that are external to the individual, in contrast, intrinsic motivation are feelings such as competence, responsibility, accomplishment and personal growth.
Undocumented students do not have the extrinsic motivation
provided by the anticipation of a good job, which they may not be able to get after graduation because of their status.
This article discusses academic motivation; its various component concepts in areas such as beliefs, goals, and values; and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
(Smith, McCullough, & Poll, 2003) and negative religious coping (Ano & Vasconcelles, 2005; Smith, et al.
However, it is worthwhile to establish feasibility in the home environment and to test if users will practice sufficiently without the presence of therapists and their associated extrinsic motivation
Motivation crowding theory tries to mediate between standard economic thinking based on purely extrinsic motivation
and psychological theories by stipulating a systematic interaction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
That extrinsic motivation
appears to undermine how the experiential purchase meets their key psychological needs," Howell stated.