We previously reported that activation of Nrf2 may be a key factor in detoxification of MeHg because Nrf2 facilitates the excretion of MeHg into the extracellular space
in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and primary mouse hepatocytes (Toyama et al.
The equilibrium for IgG molecules between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which reflects the brain extracellular space
, and the blood is in the range of 1:500.
Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that, following its release into the extracellular space
, binds to specific adenosine receptors expressed on the cell surface.
The study concluded that Hyal-Joint increases intracellular HA, which would be followed by HA secretion into the extracellular space
Routine blood tests do not reflect true body magnesium stores since <2% is in the measurable, extracellular space
, 67% is in the bone and 31% is located intracellularly.
As Granzyme B accumulates in the extracellular space
, it begins to degrade key structural and functional proteins that leads to various disease conditions.
However, it remains unclear exactly how alpha-synuclein gains access from the extracellular space
to the cytoplasm of cells to act as a template for naturally occurring alpha-synuclein, causing the naturally-occurring protein to, in turn, misfold.
Chen and colleagues have demonstrated that IV AA is a prodrug for hydrogen peroxide and the conversion occurs in the extracellular space
through oxidative reactions.
As a result, a small shift of potassium from the extracellular space
to the intracellular space can cause a change in plasma potassium concentration.
Fostering interactions between psychiatry and neurobiology, researchers in both fields and in pharmacology consider psychiatric diseases primarily as synaptic or extra-synaptic diseases, taking into account changes in dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission that can occur by communications through synaptic connections between neurons, as well as by longer-range actions through the extracellular space
1) Rhabdomyolysis is defined as breakdown of striated muscle with release of myoglobin and other muscle constituents into the extracellular space
This loss of body weight appears to result largely from physiologic contraction of the extracellular space
after birth [4,5].
suggested a simplified model of the heart that included only intracellular space and extracellular space
rather than individual cells.