A limitation of this study is using parameters of the external costs
from other studies rather than conducting our own estimation of the external cost
function relevant to the Korean case due to budget and time constraints.
18) If the external cost
of carbon dioxide emissions is >$45.
Figure 3 presents the percentage of yearly external cost
The decrease in the equilibrium rate of return tends to decrease the firms' marginal costs of investment, which works against the direct effect of the higher external cost
Produced within the study Internalisation Measures and Policies for All external Cost
of Transport (IMPACT), Version 1.
2008) External cost
of electricity generation in Lithuania, Environment Research, Engineering and Management, No.
Inclusion of external cost
will raise the producer price of polluting enterprise thus reducing the competitiveness of this product.
The company said it expected the markets to grow in 2007 while external costs
should be more favourable than in the past.
Having said this, we attempted to estimate the external cost
of compliance in the following manner.
The surveys and scientific case studies provided sufficient base to estimate external cost
of pesticide in monetary terms.
And, according to the city's Chamber of Commerce, the total external cost
of road transport now totals IRpounds 2.
This notion of external cost
is similar to the idea of externalities associated with market activities.
obtained a net external cost
of 15 cents per pack of cigarettes in 1986 based on a five percent discount rate.
The authors have done exceedingly careful analyses of these issues and conclude that the net external cost
of smoking amounts to 15 cents per pack even when cost savings due to early smoking-related deaths are factored in.
When correcting for other factors, the result is an external cost
With a present value of $1.