The live and whole fish from which GBS ST283 was recovered did not show corneal opacity or exophthalmia
, suggesting this strain may not be pathogenic to freshwater fish
These pathogens cause hemorrhagic septicemia and clinical signs of erratic or circling swimming, uncoordinated movements, anorexia or decreased appetite, exophthalmia
, corneal opacity, visceral cavity extension, bleeding and abdominal inflammation, softening of the brain and liver, hepatomegaly and pallor in the organ, as well as splenomegaly and visceral adhesion commonly found in crops and studies at experimental level.
The post-mortem findings evidenced pathological changes such us exophthalmia
, ocular opacity, congestion of meninges, ascites haemorrhagic lesions in different zones of the body, bleeding anal pore, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and necrotic zones on the skeletal muscle (Figure 1a-e).
The higher percentage of centrally located corneal ulcers might be due to exophthalmia
which prevents normal palpebral apposition and leads to lagophthalmos and ultimately leads to uneven distribution of tear film at central region of cornea.
had been detected on his physical examination, and thyroid function tests had revealed hyperthyroidism.
distended abdomen, exophthalmia
, air bubbles under skin, or stomach protruded through mouth).
resulting from resulting from orbital invasion of the tumor and vision loss due to optic nerve and nervous central system may be seen, as well as posterior segment abnormalities, such as retinal hemorrhages and retinal detachment.
Physical findings include exophthalmia
and an enlarged thyroid with a nodule on the right side, as well as bilateral rales, tachycardia, tremor, and increased deep tendon reflexes.
38) Extrathyroidal hyperthyroidism with exophthalmia
has been reported in patients with leukemia.
The whole problem of goiter or myxoedema, of cretinism and exophthalmia
, seemed to resolve itself into a question of the presence or absence of a few pinches of iodine in our thyroids.
Other side effects associated with corticosteroids administered via different routes include: topical--blurred vision, allergy and punctate keratopathy; periocular--proptosis, central retinal artery occlusion and haemorrhage; intraocular --vitreous floaters and retinal detachment; and systemic myopia and exophthalmia
Diseased fish may display nonspecific clinical signs in the early stages of infection, including rapid onset of mortality (which can reach up to 100% in fry), lethargy, darkening of the skin, exophthalmia
, anaemia (pale gills), haemorrhages at the base of the fins, gills, eyes and skin, and a distended abdomen due to oedema in the peritoneal cavity.
In cases of exophthalmia
and conjunctivitis, eyes were irrigated by 2% Boric acid solution and also used eye drop Gentamicin.
On examination of the head and neck, there was a prominent frontal bone, open and flat forehead, microcephaly, sparse hair, hypertelorism, shallow orbits, exophthalmia
, blue sclerae, megalo cornea, fuzzy corneas, malar hypoplasia, nasal hypoplasia, depressed nasal bridge, low and and rear-positioned ears, malformed helices, complete cleft lip, complete cleft palate and short neck.
In addition, erosion of the skin and fins, exophthalmia
, swollen abdomen and dark coloration has been reported in mayan cichlid (Cichlssoms urophthslmus) (32).