melanocephalus (Swainson), I R black-headed grosbeak Spiza americana (Gmelin), I O dickcissel Family Icteridae (icterines) Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus), I A red-winged blackbird Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus), I O bobolink Euphagus
carolinus (Muller), rusty I R blackbird E.
The adaptive significance of colonial nesting in the Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus
blackbirds, bluebirds, and the introduced starling also eat the fruits (Beal, 1915; DeBell & Hook, 1969; George, 1989).
Observations on the nesting mortality of the Brewer Blackbird, Euphagus
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus
carolinus: One male was present and singing near the west murre colony from 9 June to 26 July 1996.
Numbers in parentheses are birds seen with fledglings at a site where no nests of the species were found Common name Scientific name S C Brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater 16 3 Brown thrasher Toxostoma rufum 16 4 American robin Turdus migratorius 16 4 Mourning dove Zenaida macroura 16 3 Western kingbird Tyrannus verticalis 15 1 Brewer's blackbird Euphagus
cyanocephalus 14 0 Loggerhead shrike Lanius ludovicianus 14 4 Eastern kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus 14 2 Common grackle Quiscalus quiscula 12 2 House sparrow Passer domesticus 11 2 Orchard oriole Icterus spurius 10 2 American goldfinch Carduelis tristis 8 1 Black-billed cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus 8 2 European starling Sturnus vulgaris 5 1 Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 3 1 Gray catbird Dumetella carolinensis 3 2 Balt.