ESTROGEN, ESTROGEN AGONISTS, AND ESTROGEN ANTAGONISTS IN TILAPIA: EFFECTS ON SEX DIFFERENTIATION AND GONADAL MATURATION.
Also, application of estrogen antagonists such as tamoxifen, and aromatase inhibitors such as fadrazole have successfully sex-reversed genetic females to phenotypic males.
Pipeline candidates fall under major therapeutic classes such as estrogen antagonists
, female gamete inhibitor, insulin secretion inhibitor, HMG CoA inhibitor, Gastric and pancreatic lipase inhibitor and fats break down inhibitor.
A similar induction is achieved with micromolar levels of cadmium, and both responses are blocked by estrogen antagonists
(Stolen et al.
The SERMs bind to estrogen receptors and have tissue-specific effects that allow them to function as estrogen agonists in some tissues and estrogen antagonists
in other tissues.
Most known estrogen antagonists
such as tamoxifen will also express low levels of an agonist response and would complicate data interpretation by responding as a positive in both agonist and antagonist sections of the assay (15).
However, we cannot rule out that newly identified receptors such as SXR and PXR [reviewed by Blumberg and Evans (62)], which are activated by a variety of different compounds, including estrogen antagonists
and agonists, could be involved in the activation/repression of some of the estrogen-sensitive genes we have identified.