In 1942 Nobel Laureate Ernst Chain
wrote explicitly that his discovery (with Florey and Fleming) of penicillin, and the development of bacterial resistance to that antibiotic, owed nothing to Darwin's and Alfred Wallace's evolutionary theories.
After Fleming's discovery, it took twelve years before two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain
, figured out how to make penicillin in a way that could help people.
Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming but it wasn't until 1938 that Howard Florey and Ernst Chain
found a way to produce it.
It was not for another ten years or so that penicillin's astonishing properties were established at Oxford by the Australian professor of pathology, Howard Florey, a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany named Ernst Chain
and an Englishman called Norman Heatley.
This revision of history seeks to set the record straight about the roles of Alexander Fleming, Howard Florey, and Ernst Chain
in the creation of penicillin and the advent of modern medicine AS Lax reports, Fleming discovered a stray mold's potential against bacteria in a chance observation and subsequently coined the term penicillin.