epicycle

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  • noun

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a circle that rolls around (inside or outside) another circle

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Also, if we allow the center of the epicycle to move at a constant angular speed around a third point on the opposite side of the deferent, one can predict the positions of the planets much more accurately.
From the initially simple model of black-box state sovereignty, that model has acquired the kinds of epicycles the Ptolemaic system required in ever increasing numbers to save the appearances of planetary motion (precisely the kinds of qualifications to the legalist paradigm Walzer introduces in Chapters 5 and 6 of Just and Unjust Wars).
This could be the reason Galileo slighted them and advocated the veracity of Copernican epicycles over Kepler's elliptical orbits or Brahe's system (18).
The comparison of the old physics with its new wave structure can be compared to the theory of epicycles of the planets around the Earth before Newton found that the planets traveled around the Sun.
The debate is a philosophical classic, with many ingenious moves on both sides, and epicycles galore.
For example, in ancient times, the fact about the motion of the planets was described in terms of the Ptolemaic idea of epicycles (circles on top of circles).
Well meant efforts by a school of philosophers to elevate it to the higher standard of properly scientific knowledge by forcing it into the Covering Law Model of explanation proved unconvincing -- the type of generalization that resulted was as inelegantly encumbered with qualifications as was Ptolemaic astronomy with epicycles.
Rather it is that dealing with exceptions by a proliferation of rules -- adding on ethical epicycles, so to speak -- is the natural direction for a principled ethics to take.
But recovered in the dress of Amis's prose, this harlot of a novel becomes once again a meaning machine that will engage the critics with epicycles of narrative gymnastics as well as coaxing much mirth from curmudgeons who, like Amis, enjoy laughing at conventionality.
I am sure it will not consist of still more baroque epicycles on utilitarianism or ponderous pronouncements on ethics or re-enactments of some legendary primordial social contract or another paean to Nature or empty exhortations towards Truth and Honesty; but beyond that, I am as much in the dark as the next Technocrat or Aesthete.
Previously Bellarmine had written to Foscarini that "there is no danger in saying that by assuming the earth moves and the sun stands still, one saves all the appearances better than by postulating eccentrics and epicycles, and that is sufficient for the mathematician.
One can imagine lower courts forced to navigate a similar set of interlocking epicycles for gun-rights claims.
Most importantly the epicycles of spacetime physics, viz dark matter and dark energy, are dispensed with.
If this point is granted, then a door beyond inclusivism, with its reliance on ultimately insupportable epicycles, opens before us.