5) They arise from the ependymal
glial cells and typically present as intradural/extra medullary lesions involving the lumbar and sacral spinal canal.
and ventricular abnormal enhancement on FLAIR images with contrast is consistent with leptomeningeal metastasis.
cells that line these ventricles have hair-like extensions that are thought to promote the normal flow of fluid.
The scientists found that neighbouring "epithelial-like" ependymal
cells - not stem cells themselves - maintain a special structure that keeps neural stem cells "neurogenic," able to make new neurons.
Often the condition is indistinguishable from PCNSL, and the lack of ependymal
spread and additional imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) can be helpful.
Activation of Dormant Adult Neural and Ependymal
Stem Cells in Vivo
The lateral ventricular wall consists of four layers with various thicknesses and cell densities: a monolayer of ependymal
cells (layer I), a hypocellular gap containing astrocytic processes (layer II), a ribbon of cells composed of astrocytes (layer III), and a transitional zone into the brain parenchyma (layer IV) (9).
The injection of purified Ad-vectors into the lateral ventricles of adult mice leads to the transduction of ependymal
cells aligning the lateral ventricles (Fig.
The presence of ependymal
and cartilage cells on the slide preparation
On T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced images, ependymal
and subependymal contrast enhancement is seen in CMV ventriculitis.
AMP deaminase in rat brain: localization in neurons and ependymal
Cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19 are abundantly expressed in adenocarcinoma of the breast, only weakly expressed in epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and not expressed in nerve, glial, ependymal
, and meningeal cells (9).
Mild lymphocytic perivascular cuffing and loss of Purkinje cells were observed in the cerebrum and cerebellum, and virus antigen was detected in ependymal
cells and epithelium of the choroid plexus and in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
Other histologic findings can include ependymal
cells, choroid plexus papillary projections, ganglion cells, oligodendrocytes, spongioblasts, and pigment epithelium.
These lesions are thought to arise from subependymal glial cells, although other considerations include astrocytes from the subependymal plate, ependymal
cells, and mixed ependymal
and astrocytic cells (2, 5).