As the Unified English Braille
Code's implementation across the United States (D'Andrea, 2013; Dixon, 2011) draws near in January 2015 (for more information, see Braille Authority of North America, n.
Welsh Braille uses the same general rules as English Braille
Professional development in the United States should also address how the implementation of Unified English Braille
in 2016 will affect the transcription of mathematics materials.
On November 2, 2012, the Board of BANA voted to adopt Unified English Braille
(UEB) in the United States.
Given that written language for a student who is visually impaired (that is, is blind or has low vision) and learning English may involve reading and writing braille, one must wonder if the student's ability to master academic reading and writing of English braille
may take even longer than the five to seven years suggested by Cummins (2000).
The direction under consideration is the adoption of Unified English Braille
while maintaining the Nemeth Code for technical materials.
A reader of English braille
has to learn uncontracted braille as well as 189 contractions and short-form words to decode text in contracted braille (Braille Authority of North America, 2008).
Although Japanese sentences do not have spaces between the words, Japanese braille, like English braille
Holbrook and MacCuspie study the utility of Unified English Braille
for people who work in technology or science and present the results of field testing with several employed visually impaired professionals.
Ten participants listed other texts, including English Braille
, American Edition (Braille Authority of North America, 1994), which was used by 3; NPIB Companion Reader (Koenig, Sanford, Ashcroft, 2001), used by 2; and Dot Writing (Pesavento, 1993), also used by 2.
Abstract: Braille-reading mathematicians, scientists, and computer scientists were asked to examine the usability of the Unified English Braille
Code (UEB) for technical materials.