Two point mutations identified in emmer wheat
generate null Wx-A1 alleles.
For the next week, the menu will include risotto of shrimps, porcini mushroom and pigeon, beetroot dumplings with pear and gorgonzola sauce, Emmer wheat
soup with pinto beans, carpaccio of monkfish tail, sprouts of lettuce, crispy duck breast with mango, mustard, almonds and taleggio cheese cream, cuttlefish with spinach chard pie, steamed octopus with saffron creamy peppers and Sicilian capers, chicken meatballs with saffron on Milanese style risotto and mini polenta balls with truffles and wild mushrooms.
Cattle provided the main source of meat, followed by deer, pigs, and caprines, while emmer wheat
, grape, almond, and olive were the primary plant species represented.
The inhabitants of Ubaid Structure 4 used emmer wheat
, barley, lentil, pea and flax.
Inhabitants of areas to the north raised other wild cereals, such as einkorn and emmer wheat
, instead of barley, Bar-Yosef says.
The distribution areas of the wild forms of einkorn and emmer wheat
, barley and the other Neolithic founder crops overlap here, and the transition of the two species of wheat to domesticated crops has been pinpointed to this area (Harlan & Zohary 1966; Nesbitt & Samuel 1996; Heun et al.
In one, the emmer wheat
was allowed to sprout before being dried and ground into flour.
The Neolithic 'package' consisted of farming and non-farming elements, including domesticated crops, such as emmer wheat
and barley; domesticated animals, including sheep, goats, cows, pigs and dogs; the use of pottery; and the establishment of permanent settlements (Whittle 1996).
In southern central Asia, Neolithic villages such as Jeitun, along the northern piedmont of the Kopet Dag range in present day Turkmenistan, also provide evidence for the cultivation of einkorn and emmer wheat
and barley around 6000 BC (Harris & Gosden 1996: 377; Moore et al.