This fitted admirably with the anthropological functionalism of Bronislaw Malinowski, who from his experience in the Melanesian Trobriand Islands in the 1940s came to the conclusion that reciprocity and exchange played a vital role, cementing relations between individuals and their society and that society combined with culture would arise as an emergent property
of humans collaborating with each other, once the fundamental needs of individuals were met.
They place labor at the heart of the issues of production, discuss the role of information in the process of mass production, present agent-based models in which the Ricardian theory of labor value appears as an emergent property
, present other models giving rise to the class distribution of income and the long term evolution of profit rates in market economy, and analyze money using tools of computer science and the recent Chartalist school of financial theory.
When chaos theory is applied to career development, individuals are understood as complex dynamic systems, and career can be understood as an emergent property
of the interaction of individuals as systems with the rest of the world, which is also understood in terms of being multiple embedded systems (for a taxonomy of such systems refer to Patton & McMahon, 1999).
4) An emergent property
is the new characteristic generated through the interaction of individual components.
The scientists, led by Duncan Jackson from the University of Sheffield, wrote in the journal Nature, 'Trail networks could have been evolutionarily optimised to achieve an efficient flow of resources to the nest, and ants may exploit this emergent property
of networks in orientation.
An emergent property
of this collaborative agreement is progress toward a comprehensive understanding of the determinants of site-specific cancer trends at the population level and a better understanding of the science of modeling.