r] = [mu]' - j [mu]") is the relative complex permeability, j represents the imaginary part, dB represents the unit of attenuation values of incident radar wave, f is the frequency of the EM wave
, d is the coating thickness, c is the velocity of light, [Z.
In Section II of this paper, the problem geometry, as well as a short presentation of the mathematical formulation for EM wave
scattering from rough surface using the Kirchhoff approximation, are presented.
Copper surface roughness can also affect the way that high-frequency EM waves
travel through a PCB, by altering the dielectric constant (Dk) of the PCB material as it affects high-frequency transmission lines.
Environmental conditions make the use of such EM waves
not suitable for communications underground (mines, tunnels, oil and gas wells) and in water.
where c--the speed of the EM wave
through the vacuum (3 X [10.
In this way metamaterials affect EM waves
by having meticulously patterned design features, smaller than the wavelength with which they interact, to guide energy in a precise way.
Evaluation of the detection of the ball by measuring the reflective properties of EM wave
in the frequency bands under consideration (assessment of the effective reflective surface called.
where [omega] and [beta] are the frequency and the wavenumber of the EM wave
propagating inside the fiber respectively, and (r, [phi],z) are the cylindrical co-ordinates of the waveguide.
In many cases the main purpose of this research is the characterization of rough surfaces from scattered EM wave
data for remote sensing applications, in the microwave or optical regime --.
All these previous works mainly focused on experiments or theoretical analysis of the propagation characteristics of EM wave
in the plasma, and few scattering characteristics have been considered in these works.
In the case where these layers are orthogonal to the EM wave
propagation direction, the RCS of the metallic pattern may increase at frequencies other than the frequency bands targeted.
s](y) provided by the interaction between the EM wave
aggressions on the wire given by:
The frequency of the emitted EM radiation can be tuned by acoustic waves that provide distributed feedback for the EM wave
The selected geometry provides strong absorption at a certain frequency because of structural properties which minimizes the reflection for the applied incident EM wave
and can suitably be used in many applications where perfect absorption is required.
These may be thought of as modelling EM wave
scatterings, and their associated time delays.