More recently, Thompson and Neville (1999) added to the literature on race-related defense mechanisms by outlining a number of ego defenses used by Whites to preserve racism.
This category includes ego defenses such as masochism, autosadism, and introjection.
Finally, it is essential that researchers examine the relationship between the ego defenses used by White counselor's in racially provocative counseling and supervision situations and those outcome variables (e.
To shed light on the complexity of these relationships, we used the following question as a guide: Are the ego defense mechanisms used by White counselor trainees during racially provocative counseling and supervision situations related to their racial identity status?
To examine the multivariate relationship between the racial identity statuses of White counselor trainees and the ego defense mechanisms used to manage their anxiety during racially provocative counseling and supervision situations, we used a canonical correlation procedure.
The current study examined the relationship between the racial identity statuses of a sample of White counselor trainees and their use of various ego defense mechanisms in managing the anxiety experienced in racially provocative counseling and supervision situations.
In the absence of the high levels of anxiety associated with abandoning racism, the White counselor trainees in this study would not be expected to use those ego defense mechanisms that discharge anxiety outward (i.
This result indicated that the addition of PRN to the ego defense strategies used by White counselor trainees to manage race-related anxiety, in addition to increasing the magnitude of the canonical correlations (all except PRO), changed the direction of the relationship between Reintegration and TAO.
Vaillant, upon investigating data from three studies that tracked more than 2,200 individuals over a fifty- to seventy-year period, found the most mature ego defenses
among individuals who had attained the highest degrees of psychological adjustment.