A minority of these genera live in close association with humans (synanthropic), including fleas of these species: Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Echidnophaga
gallinacea, and Tunga penetrans (1).
Off-host Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans, Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, Echidnophaga
gallinacea, and Xenopsylla brasiliensis were collected in the Ituri district of northeastern DRC from March through April 2007, during an investigation of a plague outbreak.
Other species collected were Echidnophaga gallinacea (15.
canis Cats, dogs, other animals Echidnophaga gallinacea Domestic fowl, Rattus rattus Tunga penetrans Humans, dogs, goats Xenopsylla brasiliensis Rattus rattus, Mastomys natalensis Flea species composition, % Domestic flea species Low * High ([dagger]) Pulex irritans 61.
canis (12 from 7 dogs), Echidnophaga
gallinacea (4 from 3 cats and 57 from 16 dogs), and Spilopsyllus cuniculi (5 from 2 cats).