76) For Orbe's summary of the Ebionite
position, see "?
Petri Luomanen reconstructs Ebionite
and Nazarene identities primarily from patristic sources.
Thus, the second part, "Heresies and Orthodoxies," discusses the range of Christian reactions to Judaism and its Scriptures, from the Ebionite
position of adherence to Jewish law and denial of Jesus' divinity, to the rejection of the "Old Testament" along with all Jewish elements and the complete divinization of Christ found in Marcionism.
I have usually assumed, for example, that one could trace a line from the early Jerusalem believers, through Paul's opponents in Galatia, to later Jewish Christianity as exemplified in the Ebionites
and Nazoraeans receive critical treatment (Skarsaune, Wolfram Kinzig), and Skarsaune closes the book with a masterful summary history.
1] Due to pressure from both the early church and the Jewish community, the Jewish Christians were squeezed out, with various remnants such as the Ebionites
85-97), citing similarities in the baptismal practices of the Hemerobaptists, the Ebionites
, the Elchasaites, and the Mandaeans, notes a great deal of overlapping in Jewish and Christian understanding and practice, and concludes that this delayed the parting of the ways.
On "Jewish Christianity," we are treated to solid and thoughtful proposals that go far beyond conventional considerations of Ebionites
, Nazoreans, and the like.
67) Bonaventure accused the early leaders of the Church, including Peter, of falling into the sin of legalism, which also spawned the first heresy of the Ebionites
, who taught the Law was to be observed along with the Gospels.
Nowadays it has become almost conventional in this connection to propose the view that one or other "Jewish-Christian" community, such as the ancient Nazarenes, Ebionites
, or Elkasites, were present in Arabia, and that they exercised a decisive influence on Muhammad and the Qur'an.
Until the fourth century, sects of Christians (early on, the Ebionites
, and later, the School of Antioch, most importantly Diodorus of Tarsus and Nestorius) believed that Jesus was the biological son of Mary and Joseph and the adopted son of God.
Additional chapters explore specific events and groups that shaped this history, such as the Christian change of the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday, the enigmatic Christian sympathizers with Judaism known as Godfearers, and the mysterious Torah-observant Christian sects of Ebionites
The denials of the divinity of Christ by nineteenth-century critics like Strauss and Renan, which is Browning's context for this poem, were long preceded by the first- and second-century teachings of Cerinthus and the Ebionites
about the "double nature" of Jesus.
This "Gospel according to the Hebrews" (or simply "the Hebrew Gospel") is not to be confused with canonical Matthew (which, in Edwards' estimation, was the last of the three Synoptics to be written), but it is to be identified with the pseudepigraphal gospels of the Nazaraeans and the Ebionites
as Gentile Christianity gradually separated from Judaism, the early Church fathers had encountered and condemned various groups of Jewish talmidey Yeshu'a (disciples of Jesus such as Ebionites
and Nazarenes) and of alleged Gentile Judaisers.