Both the English and the Dutch East India companies engaged in hundreds of thousands of transactions every year, and even the smaller Hudson's Bay Company was involved in tens of thousands of transactions between the Indians and the local factor, the local factor and the ships' captains, and the ships' captains and the principals in London.
The companies differed in size and in the quantities of goods traded; the two East India companies were the largest in terms of the value of business conducted, and the Hudson's Bay Company was the smallest.
Both the Royal African and the Hudson's Bay companies had small central offices, growing from six to twenty permanently salaried managers (excluding the Court) by 1700, whereas the Dutch and English East India companies employed over 350 head office administrators by the mid-eighteenth century.
Both the Dutch and the British East India companies owned saltpeter and silk spinning factories in India.
The method of payment varied among the companies: the Hudson's Bay and Dutch East India companies held money in London and Amsterdam on their agent's accounts; the Muscovy Company paid some wages in rubles; and the Royal African paid its men from the gold collected in Africa.
Both the Dutch and English East India companies allowed private trade, but they tried to restrict it within acceptable limits.
Diller's study makes for excellent reading, and can be recommended to any one interested in the history of Danish colonial expansion in the East Indies, the history of East India companies
, or maritime historians interested in the patterns of trade between India, Southeast Asia and China.