The gold standard test would be to pitch the testosterone injections against a dummy drug
in a controlled trial," he added.
When patient records were unlocked and analyzed, 83 percent of the group taking a dummy drug
had worsened; but only 52 percent of those on methotrexate had worsened.
But MRI brain scans showed that the diseased area increased about 20 percent in MS patients taking the dummy drug
but only about 7 percent in those taking moderate levels of the drug; it decreased 4 percent in those taking high doses.
Researchers pointed out that many patients given active medication correctly guessed they were not taking a dummy drug
, which may have skewed the results.
Each year, 15,000 women die from the disease in Europe Experts say cervical cancer affects about 470,000 women a year worldwide and 33,500 in EuropeA total of 12,167 women aged 16 to 23 from 13 countries including the UK took part in the trial Half were given three injections of Gardasil spanning six months and half jabs of an inactive dummy drug
And while Raste was lucky enough to be given the dummy drug
, it must be no comfort having had to watch his colleagues suffer as their heads started to swell and they suffered violent reactions.
Vaccines given to children under the age of two have the same effect as if they were given a dummy drug
, he added.
The rest received dexamethasone plus a non-active dummy drug
, or placebo.
In the study, patients treated with Tarceva showed a 23% improvement in overall survival, compared to patients who received the dummy drug
A third group of youngsters will receive a dummy drug
as part of the test.
Research from Novartis suggests everolimus more than doubles the time without tumour growth or death compared with a dummy drug
She said many questions remained to be answered, including whether Premarin's promise would hold up in the trial against a dummy drug
, whether its benefits would outweigh its risks and whether progesterone in the combined pill might negate estrogen's effects on the brain.
In one study cited by the authors, people who took a dummy drug
that was allegedly supposed to make them feel more alert began to pay closer attention in a monitoring test because they expected the drug would make them do so.
In a preliminary clinical study in Israel, linomide, a chemical that stimulates production of key immune-system cells, performed better than a dummy drug
in slowing the decline in function caused by secondary-progressive MS.
But 242 of the 819 people taking the dummy drug
came down with a total of 297 cases of this more common malarial infection.