ANOVA factors were facial manipulation (3 levels: Duchenne smile, standard smile, and no smile) and electrode site (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, and Pz).
27), with the differences between scores for those in the Duchenne smile and the no-smile conditions reaching a level of marginal significance (t = 1.
However, this recent study uncovered the possibility that the Duchenne smile
can also be artificially simulated.
Babies responded contingently to touches of affection with Duchenne smiles
(sd), to speech/vocalizations with ample smiles (sa), and to smiles with simple smiles (ss), ample smiles (sa), and mixed smiles (sm).
Nearby, the hospitality team from San Diego's SLA Chapter offered Duchenne smiles
to passers-by near the exhibit hall entrance.
Smiles are generally divided into two categories: standard smiles, which use the muscles surrounding the mouth, and genuine or Duchenne smiles
, which engage the muscles surrounding both the mouth and eyes.
The students' Duchenne smile
was not only noticed in group activities, but also in funny class moments.
In addition, participants rated the individuals expressing the Duchenne smile
more positively than individuals displaying non-enjoyment smiles.
The Duchenne smile
, a genuine grin, it's named for 19th-century French scientist Duchenne de Boulogne, whose name is associated with a form of muscular dystrophy.
The results of the study suggest that smiling may actually influence our physical state: compared to participants who held neutral facial expressions, participants who were instructed to smile, and in particular those with Duchenne smiles
, had lower heart rate levels after recovery from the stressful activities.
Genuine smiles are known as Duchenne smiles
after the 19th-century neurologist who defined them in detail.