If Portes thinks that disequilibria
are "either not serious or not persistent" then, given the market nature of the applied models, he must conclude that a reform of the system is sufficient to remove the remaining imbalances.
Disequilibria are significant in all but the most extreme classes, and are remarkably strong: the maximum estimated from the cubic polynomial is R = 0.
Since linkage disequilibria should be lower when clines overlap less, a negative correlation is expected, and was observed in Poland (Szymura 1988).
The issue in this study is one of political economy, concerning the adjustments of expenditures and revenues to budgetary disequilibria.
This construction allows, without loss of any information, the examination of the independent responses of each fiscal variable, first, to budgetary disequilibria and, second, to departures from their respective long run relations with GNP.
Such a phenomenon would be expected in principle from variation in disequilibria among marker loci and loci directly responsible for the cline shape.
The tails join very closely to the central region of the cline, and disequilibria between markers and any closely linked selected loci probably would not have fully broken up so near to the center.
Pairwise linkage disequilibria
(R) between the three diagnostic loci in black-and-white, intermediate, and black fish of Hyde Reef, respectively.
In previous analyses of cytonuclear disequilibria in hybrid zones it has been assumed that codominance holds between alleles at nuclear loci in the cytonuclear system (Asmussen et al.
1] and the allelic disequilibrium D are redundant, for if any two of the four disequilibria are known, then the other two can be found (Asmussen et al.
Consequenctly, linkage disequilibria
are reinforced, and the effective selection per locus remains high.
ij] are differences between the gene frequencies and the linkage disequilibria
in the hybrid group H and population R:
The linear combination that is best for the statistical analysis would depend on the linkage disequilibria
between the loci and would give each of the two closely linked fissions on chromosome 2 less weight than unlinked fissions.
Any non-zero disequilibria
were assumed to reflect associations between G.
Spurious gametic disequilibria
can be generated by pooling samples with different gene frequencies at the loci (Nei and Li, 1973; Prout, 1973), and this effect could be produced if different inversions involving the loci under analysis were pooled.