of participles grammaticalized into tense markers and voice (passive) markers.
Unlike previous approaches, such as Quirk and Wrenn's (1994), evidence is gathered to hold that a process of grammaticalization has taken place that motivates the insertion of -bora into the inventory of derivational morphemes
The typology of zero-derivation phenomena in Old English includes (Martin Arista, fc-a): (i) zero derivation with explicit inflectional morphemes and without explicit derivational morphemes
, as in ri:dan 'to ride' > ri:da 'rider'; (ii) zero derivation without explicit or implicit morphemes, whether inflectional or derivational, as in bi:dan 'to delay' > bi:d 'delay'; (iii) zero derivation without inflectional or derivational morphemes
and with ablaut, as in dri:fan 'to drive' > dra:f'action of driving'; and (iv) zero derivation with ablaut and unproductive formatives such as -m in fle:on 'to fly' > fle:am 'flight'.
Since, unlike the case of singular forms, we cannot isolate the morpheme marking gender and number from the derivational one, we may suppose that the new morpheme -enger- has a status of portmanteau, carrying two kinds of information (number and derivation) in a single morpheme (namely, we cannot identify which morpheme does carry plural information and which is the derivational morpheme
, or better, we may surely affirm that the controller that selects the number of the inflection is not the source noun anymore).
Of these, 170 are of the type represented by (1a), that is, nouns in which -a is an inflectional morpheme; the other 128 are of the type represented by (1b), that is, they contain the inflectional as well as derivational morpheme
In the first place, the explicit derivational relationship as in bacan 'to bake' ~ baecestre 'baker', in which a full derivational morpheme
turns up in the derivative, and, in the second place, the implicit derivational relationship, such as the one holding in ri:dan 'to ride' ~ ridda 'rider', in which no derivational morpheme
is present from a strictly synchronic point of view.
Abl Ablative Abil Abilitative Acc Accusative Agn Agentive Aor Aorist Aux Auxiliary Caus Causative CmpMrk Compound Marker Com Commutative Cond Conditional Conn Connector Cop Copula Dat Dative Der Derivational morpheme
Dvb Deverbalizer EpCop Epistemological Copula Evid Evidential Fem Feminine Fut Future Gen Genitive Masc Masculine Nec Necessitative Neg Negative Loc Locative Obl Oblique Pass Passive Past Past Pl Plural Poss Possessive (e.
Thus, the semantic opacity of the prefix, observable only in the prefixed infinitives and finite forms, is a typical feature of derivational morphemes
, whereas the entire elimination of the semantic substance from the prefix in preterite participles seems to be the "semantic regularization" of the products of the inflexional i-, a process which had begun long before the Middle English period.
As is commonly known, derivational morphemes
have been referred to as affixes, and more specifically as suffixes, prefixes and infixes, in dependence on their position towards the base.
This makes it nearly impossible to discern, for instance, the existence of inflectional classes or derivational morphemes
in the Kedang lexicon.
Second, Basque has rich morphology, that is, most words are composed by a lexeme and a limited set of inflectional or derivational morphemes
, available at http://www.
The standard was expressed in, among others, a consolidated graphemic system whereby the functional interrelations between particular graphemes and phonemes remained relatively stable (even if these interrelations were complex), as well as in the consistent spelling of particular morphemic exponents of grammatical categories, derivational morphemes
, as well as loanwords.
Martin Arista (forthcoming a) offers a typology of zero-derivation phenomena in Old English that includes: (i) zero derivation with explicit inflectional morphemes and without explicit derivational morphemes
, as in ridan 'to ride' > rida 'rider'; (ii) zero derivation without explicit or implicit morphemes, either inflectional or derivational, as in bidan 'to delay' > bid 'delay'; (iii) zero derivation without inflectional or derivational morphemes
but displaying ablaut, as in drifan 'to drive' > draf 'action of driving'; and (iv) zero derivation with ablaut and formatives that can no longer be considered productive affixes, such as -m in fleon 'to fly' > fleam 'flight'.
Similar problems concerning multifunctionality arise when, instead of analyzing grammatical morphemes, we turn our attention to derivational morphemes
and word formation patterns in general.
5), or derivational morphemes
(as in negative incorporation, 6.