However, despite the importance of deixis in FID and despite the fact that reproducing them does not pose any problem in Farsi, there are some cases where such deictic expressions
have been left untranslated: "For having lived in Westminster--how many years now?
The overt signals of the change into the gravestone quotation are archaic or formal register features: borrowed features of style that would be out of place in Pip's recounting of his childhood memories, particularly the deictic expressions
already noted: the above, and the aforesaid.
In face-to-face interaction, which Lyons describes as the "canonical situation of utterance," deictic expressions typically take the speaker's position as their point of anchorage, and hence can only be successfully interpreted with reference to that position.
The main contrast, in present-day English, is that between proximal deictic expressions such as "this" and "here," which refer to locations that are perceived as close to the deictic centre, and nonproximal expressions such as "that" and "there" which refer to locations that are perceived as far from that position.
In fact, the pronoun 'T" is one of the most prototypical cases of deictic expressions, as it normally refers to whomever is currently speaking or writing, so that its referent changes with every change of speaker/writer.
In a classic early study of deixis, Buhler introduced the notion of "deixis at phantasma" to capture the use of deictic expressions to refer to elements of a situational context that is different from the current communicative situation and not directly perceivable by the listener or reader.
So one can understand the use of deictic expressions
pointing to the image, like the first decoding--as primarily it is--of the signs that the photograph necessarily creates.
The reader may read sentence by sentence and comprehend the individual sentences, but fail to extract the meaning of the text because he does not grasp the pragmatic residues (Levinson, 1983), such as deictic expressions in the passage.
The passages were all narratives, since the purpose of this study was to load some of these passages with deictic expressions.
It seems as if the background knowledge of the examinees overcame the hampering effect of the deictic expressions.
The process of identifying and dealing with deictic expressions in a passage should make the EFL students more sensitive to such terms and their proper interpretations when they read on their own.
Working within a research tradition that extends back (at least) to Karl Buhler's seminal discussion of deixis in Sprachtheorie (originally published in 1934), most linguists would agree that we can define deictic expressions - terms like here, this, now, I, and you - as "those linguistic elements whose interpretation in simple sentences makes essential reference to properties of the extralinguistic context of the utterances in which they occur" (Anderson and Keenan 259).
The meaning of deictic expressions changes with the utterer of an utterance and with his or her position in space and time.
Socially deictic expressions encode "social distinctions that are relative to participant-roles" (Levinson 63; cf.
As Stanzel (168-70) has illustrated so beautifully, reflector-mode narratives can be determined best at the very beginning of texts where they immediately establish a deictic center (Banfield 151-67) on the part of the protagonist and relate all deictic expressions
to that deictic center.