235-42; Ruth Laila Schmidt, "Report on a Survey of Dardic
Languages of Kashmir", Indian Linguistics, Vol.
Furthermore, the population associated with the queendom, most probably Dardic (or perhaps also Burusho) tribes, could once have spread much further to the east, and this could have caused the presumably wrong association with Greater Yangtong.
But when used in the Bonpo sources, it seems to always refer to Iran and the whole of the Achae-menid empire, or, more specifically, to the Iranian borderlands along the Pamirs (Gilgit and Badakhshan) and the Dardic areas along the Hindukush and Indus (Chitral and Chilas).
for two types of tower-like structures in the Dardic area, one of which is from a quite recent date, but might still follow an ancient pattern.
Keywords: Romani history, Nuristani, Dardic, West Pahari, Indo-Aryan, linguistic borrowing.
I have been working for some time on languages within the three Indo-Aryan subgroups (1) Nuristani, Dardic and West Pahari.
These words look like loan formations after a Dardic model, compare Indus Kohistani sis-lut and Phalura sisa-luto both 'bare-headed' (second element < OIA *lutta/luttha 'defective' ; also in Shina luto, Burushaski loto 'barhauptig, entblosst, schamlos').
However, conjunct formations are again found in Dardic as in Gauro chigi gho 'to sneeze' with the verb deriving < OIA ghatate 'is busy with' (4407).
The confusion between druma and dharma has two possible explanations: we could hypothesize with Karashima that Dharmaraksa's Indic text - or his pronunciation of it - was subject to the usual metathesis of liquids characteristic of Gandhari and the later Dardic
languages, hence dharma > dhrama or drama (with concomitant confusion of u and a); or that druma was pronounced with an epenthetic -a- [daruma] in which the unaccented -u- was heard only weakly, thereby making its pronunciation nearly indistinguishable from that of dharma.
Buddruss with Muhammad Amin Zia; Radloff and Shakil (1998) and Radloff (1999) on Gilgit Shina; Liljegren (2008) on Palula; earlier detailed treatments of Kohistani Shina by Schmidt (2001, 2004, 2006); joint efforts by Schmidt and Kohistani (1995, 1998, 2001) and by Schmidt and Zarin (1981); and work on eastern Shina by Hook (1990, 1996, 1997), it is making Shina one of the better-studied of the Dardic languages.
Since relative clauses in some Dardic languages, for example Khowar and Kalasha, are constructed with k- (interrogative) forms, this Kohistani Shina relative clause with joo 'what' raises the question of whether it is a variant of the k- word strategy, an influence from those I-A languages employing an inherited j- (relative) word strategy, or both.
In the religions of the Northwest known from Nuristani and Dardic
traditions the Indian Siva often derives his name from Mahadeva (Mahandeu, Mande etc.
With the exception in fact of the Burushaski language spoken in Hunza--a non-Indo-European tongue for which no plausible linguistic affiliation has yet been found (5)--the languages of the Hindu Kush belong to the so-called Dardic
and Kafiri (or Nuristani) language groups (Edelman 1983; Fussman 1972; Morgenstierne 1974; Strand 2001; Bashir 2003).
The OIA voiced aspirated consonants have been lost in the majority of Dardic languages, as is quite clear from the vocabulary in Table 1.
Morgenstierne, Georg 1947, "Metathesis of Liquids in Dardic," in Festskrift til Professor Olaf Broch.