As researchers have followed up on the side effects of the drug, they also have found that women exposed as embryos, the so-called DES daughters, may have abnormally developed reproductive tracts, causing such problems as infertility and miscarriages.
The first synthetic version of the hormone estrogen, DES was available as a pill, making it an eagerly welcomed drug for the physicians of the time who believed that insufficient amounts of estrogen led to a miscarriage.
Marilyn Shenker, a marriage and family therapist in Sherman Oaks, learned in the early 1970s that she was exposed to DES.
With most DES daughters beyond their childbearing years, new concerns have emerged.
The low sensitivity of our model is also apparent in the high doses of DES and EP needed to be able to show a significant luciferase induction (Figures 1 and 2).
In these experiments, BPA was found to be 5,000 times less active than DES in activating ER-[alpha] and 1,400 times less active than DES toward ER-[beta] transactivation.
In 1997, the key people involved in the decommissioning of these properties formed the DES team.
During the operating life of the mine, and beyond; throughout the decommissioning and closure periods,, Denison's employees, now represented by DES, have performed the treatment.
Abraham is a cryptographer and Triple DES
-- which replaces the current personal identification number (PIN) encryption standard -- triples the encryption algorithm used to protect PIN data.
These results do not suggest that males exposed to DES
in the womb are less intelligent than their nonexposed brothers, Reinisch cautions.
cvPipeline's one-stop, up-to-date service helps answer critical questions, such as: Who is investing in DES
and which types of products are getting funded?
However, "we found no evidence that DES
impairs male fertility," the researchers said--at least as measured by length of time to conception, age at fathering first child, average number of children, whether a man had ever fathered a child, and sexual function.
However, the biocompatibility and deliverability of DES
are crucial in ensuring the efficacy of the procedure.
government officials that DES
provides adequate protection of sensitive data.