The main concern of this chapter is the function of -man and, more specifically, counterfactual conditionals
As regards the past counterfactual conditional
, this construction is used when referring to something that would have happened if some condition had been met.
Undoubtedly, the facts belong to realis, but the counterfactual conditionals
themselves belong to irrealis.
Our aim is to compare counterfactual conditionals
based on 'unless' to ones based on 'if not' and 'only if'.
Those properties are able to serve as the ground of de re modal truths, it is said, because they bear a special relation to counterfactual conditionals
, one of truth-making.
Deductive reasoning with factual, possible and counterfactual conditionals
Whereas English counterfactual conditionals
can express different degrees of epistemic distance by means of past-tense morphology, Russian is unable to reflect these levels since all counterfactual conditionals
have to be construed with the particle by and the past tense.
Reasoning with 'unless', 'if not' and 'only if' Counterfactual Conditionals
According to the conditional analysis, dispositions and causes reduce to certain true sentences: dispositions and causes reduce to counterfactual conditionals
about objects and events, respectively.
A second thing that moral principles do is support counterfactuals, or counterfactual conditionals
such as If it hadn't rained, they would have played tennis use specific formal signals of the intended contrary-to-fact construal, such as the verb forms and the if connective, but they also rely on the intersubjective role of aspects of the ground, by evoking a positive space signaled by negation and a shared assumption about tennis games being cancelled when it rains.
Indeed, Lewis himself does not so much defend Humean supervenience outfight as argue that it need not be given up on philosophical grounds (1986, xi)--in principle the materials allowed by Lewis would be enough to enable the world to contain such things as minds, causation, people, and languages; and in principle, Lewis claims, his Humean world has everything needed for truths of counterfactual conditionals
and statements of objective chances.
Similarly, Goodman (1947), in his discussion of counterfactual conditionals
, stated that 'the assertion that a connection holds is made on the presumption that certain circumstances not stated in the antecedent obtain' (p.
In particular, the teleologist can plausibly claim that teleological explanations in the form of (1) typically imply or support two different sorts of counterfactual conditionals
, although in both cases the implication is defeasible.
It explains this disparity between indicative and counterfactual conditionals
by clarifying important logical differences between them: (a) substitutivity of identity holds for indicatives but fails for counterfactuals, and Co) counterfactuals preserve possibility while indicatives preserve only truth.