EIS was performed with a three-electrode setup which included the coated substrate as a working electrode, platinum mesh as a counter electrode
, and silver-silver chloride as a reference electrode.
However, as counter electrode
3 stainless steel was used.
They describe dye-sensitized solar cells built on plastic substrates by the low-temperature preparation of semiconductor films, cells based on nitrogen-doped titania electrodes, porphyrins as potential sensitizers, PEO-imidazole ionic liquid oligomer and polymer electrolytes, the counter electrode
, the efficiency of electron injection in dye-sensitized semiconductor films, charge transport and interfacial charge transfer in dye-sensitized nanoporous semiconductor electrode systems, and electron transportation and recombination in TiOin2 film for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.
The scientists found a way to reliably coat single nanowires with a smooth layer of a PMMA-based gel electrolyte that insulates the wires from the counter electrode
while allowing ions to pass through.
The detector was located in the detection reservoir and consisted of an Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Pt wire counter electrode
, and a homemade carbon fiber working electrode (i.
2] passivation layer, and a surrounding counter electrode
A graphite counter electrode
with an exposed area of 0.
A three-electrode cell of Borosil glass, consisting of a working electrode (WE) of MS, a pure platinum counter electrode
(CE), and Saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as a reference electrode, was used for the measurements.
Following introductory discussions of the motivation and basic concepts of electrodeposition from ionic liquids, the principles of ionic liquids synthesis, and the physical properties of ionic liquids, chapters cover: electrodeposition of metals; electrodeposition of alloys; electrodeposition of semiconductors in ionic liquids; conducting polymers; nanostructured metals and alloys deposited from ionic liquids; electrodeposition on the nanometer scale (in situ scanning tunneling microscopy); plasma electrochemistry with ionic liquids; technical aspects such as counter electrode
reactions, recycling, and impurities; plating protocols; and future directions and challenges.
Under a short-circuit condition, electrons are easily extracted as photocurrent and none of the electrons are drawn to the counter electrode
The sensing element of the flow sensor contained an immune modified graphite powder as a working electrode, a graphite counter electrode
, and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode; these were the basis of the flow-through immunoassay technique.
Platinum electrode was used as counter electrode
and standard calomel electrode (SCE) used as reference electrode.
Jetting of either resistor of capacitor material (actually counter electrode
material) affords the capability to trim up as well as down.
The spectrometer also is highly stable as it isn't sensitive to ambient temperature fluctuation, and it uses a log-life counter electrode
to ensure long-term analytical precision.
Market forecast for DSSC modules and parts/materials (Front Electrode, Dye, Electrolyte, Counter Electrode
, Metal Paste, Glass)