An attempt to provide a definition of the various terms and their connection to cosmopolitan democracy is provided in Table 1, below.
Cosmopolitan democracy is set out here to be a more inclusive term, one that comprehends the theoretical attempts and political experimentations aimed at expanding democracy beyond its traditionally state-centered domain.
9) The idea of a cosmopolitan democracy was never intended to provide a single recipe, but rather to serve as a unifying framework for a plethora of proposals and campaigns that, in different ways, aim to develop global governance in a democratic direction.
7) Not all these proposals move in a direction of democratic global governance, and even less so in the direction of the cosmopolitan democracy model, but many of them include elements that incorporate key democratic values, such as accountability, representativeness, transparency, and participation.
Of course, each of these actors is likely to pursue its own agenda and may be interested in only a few of the components in the cosmopolitan democracy project.
In the next section we single out a few areas where movements toward cosmopolitan democracy have been debated, while the subsequent sections are devoted to identifying the agents that could promote cosmopolitan democracy both from the bottom up and from the top down.
We are aware that these paths toward cosmopolitan democracy do not proceed evenly, and we do not assume that the way toward a more transparent, representative, accountable, responsive world politics will affect all the components of the system at the same time and at the same speed.
Cosmopolitan democracy can be developed through a variety of policy and institutional changes.
11) See, among many others, Daniele Archibugi, The Global Commonwealth of Citizens: Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy (Princeton, N.
Re-Imagining Political Community: Studies in Cosmopolitan Democracy (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998), p.
Whereas under the norms of the current global system the principle of nonviolence requires states to use force in disputes only as a last resort, reforms consistent with cosmopolitan democracy would strengthen the ability of suprastate institutions to hold individual leaders criminally responsible for interstate aggression.
Thus, "the cosmopolitan democracy project views the UN as the pivot of the entire world judicial and political system.
His responses to various critiques of cosmopolitan democracy are, however, as detailed and nuanced as any in the literature.
In sum, The Global Commonwealth of Citizens provides not only an exhaustive treatment of the benefits and drawbacks of cosmopolitan democracy but the most detailed statement to date of how some form of cosmopolitan democracy could be realized.