The examples in (8) reflect a general tendency for heavy reliance on the copula verb
haya 'be'--realized in Present tense by zero or by a pronominal copy as in (8b)--in constructing background setting elements in Hebrew narrative discourse (Berman 2001).
History English language shows that the verb "to be", also known as copula verb
, was conjugated according to 3 different persons: first person 'am', second person 'art' and third person 'is'.
The strategies for encoding predication in the past tense are either involve the conjugation of the predicate (obligatory for verbs and optional for non-verbal categories) or alternatively, employment of the copula verb
in non-verbal predication.
The resultative construction consists of a locative verb participle, formed by -eri 'PTCP', and the copula verb
bore 'I am'.
Undoubtedly this circumstance resulted from the fact that Hebrew does not use the copula verb
Werden, with its mutative meaning, has become more common than the copula verb
sein, which played a more important role in a former stage of the language (cf.
From these idiosyncratic properties of copula verbs
, we can assume that when a copula verb
selects a pronoun as its subject, it requires a strict morphosyntactic value on its pronoun subject, but nothing on the subject's INDEX value (cf.
The children are observed to have difficulties not with tense per se but rather with the present tense of the copula verb
and the past tense of regular verbs, while at the same time being as proficient as younger and age-matched controls in using the present tense with main verbs and the past tense of irregular verbs.
The verb can be a lexical verb, as in (11), just as well as a modal or copula verb
, as in (12) (both examples are taken from Lasser 1997):