Although whites in the West tended to subsume all Chinese under the rubric of coolie labor
, most Chinese immigrants lived as free individuals to a greater or lesser extent.
Supreme Court's commentary on the Thirteenth Amendment in the Slaughter-House Cases, which stated that "[i]f Mexican peonage or the Chinese coolie labor
system shall develop slavery of the Mexican or Chinese race within our territory," the amendment would render it illegal.
As he demonstrates, the South's debate over coolie labor
had "profound and lasting effects on the historical formations of race and nation in the nineteenth century.
While the Yorty-Bradley battles of 1969 and 1973 were characterized by much ``trash talk,'' the politics of trash separation surfaced in 1961 when Sam Yorty accused incumbent Mayor Norris Poulson of ``forcing Los Angeles housewives to perform coolie labor
for a salvage firm.
Harry Lane's racial views were mixed: He eagerly defended American Indians and home rule for Filipinos, but he was unsympathetic to blacks and Chinese coolie labor