Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert, "La Nation among the Nations: Portuguese and Other Maritime Trading Diasporas in the Atlantic, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries," Atlantic Diasporas: Jews, Conversos
, and Crypto-Jews in the Age of Mercantilism, 1500-1800, ed.
Thus we have the phenomenon of the crypto-Jews of Belmonte, who long before the twentieth century had naturally forgotten their Hebrew and were praying in Portuguese, and the descendants of Portuguese and Spanish conversos
who over the generations managed to filter out of Portugal and Spain, taking refuge in many countries from the Netherlands to Italy and the New World.
Next she tracks the insistence with which nominal Jewish converts to Christianity, particularly female ones, were imagined as possessed of"irreducible foreignness" (17) in order to think through the depiction of Jessica in The Merchant of Venice; her material here draws on and accords with the bulk of recent work on Jessica and on conversos
The book also details the persecution of Jews and Muslims--and conversos
(Jewish converts) and Moriscos (Muslim converts)--as part of Spanish concern with purity of blood and national identity.
Alem dos catolicos, Schwartz analisa os conversos
e os mouriscos, recordando que na Peninsula Iberica, durante a Idade Media, as tres grandes religioes monoteistas -- islamismo, cristianismo e judaismo -- conviveram em diversas ocasioes.
Ramon Benvenistes has a secret: he's from a family of conversos
, Jews who have converted to Christianity.
Adelman suggests that the scene in which Sir Thomas More quells the anti-stranger riots in the play that bears his name extends a sympathy toward others who had flocked into London: Spanish, Portuguese, and, among them, conversos
Atlantic Diasporas: Jews, Conversos
and Crypto Jews in the Age of Mercantilism, 1500-1800
One might well be thankful for Adelman's impartial critique of London's conversos
, steering clear of dichotomous misnomers like usurious Jew to reason the influence of foreigners in a fiercely xenophobic play (12).
Chapter 1 examines contemporary views of London conversos
and aliens, parsing these categories in Sir Thomas More, Three Ladies of London, and John Foxe's Sermon preached at the Christening of a Certaine Lew.
who returned to Judaism as well as wealthy, merchant, foreign Francos (former conversos
and their descendants from Livorno) who arrived during the century, however, formed separate congregations and maintained their independence despite the attempts of rabbis to make them accept their authority, abide by communal customs, and pay congregational taxes.
Her Jewish father, Baptisma Bassano, was among a group of court musicians from Venice, brought to England by Henry VIII (most of the estimated 200 British Jews then living as Marranos or Conversos
were connected to the court, including the Queen's physician, Roderigo Lopez, later hanged for treason).
These Jewish converts, known locally as Conversos
, became publicly the most ardent of all Christians.
Among the foreign merchants residing in England, the Portuguese New Christians or conversos
, who had been accustomed to keeping and handling slaves before they took refuge in England in the 1540s, enjoyed the privilege of keeping up their old lifestyle, practicing their Jewish rites on the sly, and developing their commercial networks with their old converso
partners in Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Constantinople.
, or "new Christians" as they were often designated, were associated with strategic dissembling, and Jews became synonymous with insincerity.