But all that was as true of the "often lackadaisical conventual
inquisitor" as of the newly professionalized Observant.
Tavuzzi argues that the earlier Conventual
inquisitors, often appointed to their native areas, knew local non-diabolic magic practitioners, and were fairly lenient toward them.
20) Factors like these can help to explain the flourishing of a female conventual literature in Portugal, in the 1600s and 1700s, as well as the existence of heretical groups who practised, and indeed cultivated, mystical excesses.
The significant increase in the conventual population in seventeenth-century Portugal is linked by Saramago to the period of Spanish rule from 1580 to 1640.
He returned to California and entered the Conventual
Franciscans on California's Central Coast.
Cisneros's attempts were aimed at transforming the Conventuals
(who had deviated from the rule of Francis) into Observants (who had preserved the rule of their founder), which, as Rummel demonstrates, met with "considerable resistance.
410, 8 April 1520, records the difficulties that arose when the convent was divided between Observants and the traditional Conventuals: "Et prima La Signoria sentava in choro; hora ch'e fato questa partison di monache Conventual et oevante, sta preparato a sentar la Signoria di fuora in chiesia, cossa nova et ne ho voluro far nota.
19] Documentation from this and other convents indicates that such patronage activity was a common burden and privilege of conventual office.
The new nuns were not actually of another order, but reformed instead of conventual Benedictines.
96v), closely paralleling the situation at San Zaccaria and calling the patriarchal vicar in charge of conventual reforms a "proditor," "usito del seme de Iudda," and "artefice diabolico.
Despite the determined preaching of Bernardine of Siena, a future Observant saint who nevertheless maintained strong sympathy for the Conventuals, the two sides were unable to resolve their disputes.
This is not to suggest that the altar represented a clearly-defined program of Conventual propaganda, but rather that the divisions between Conventuals and Observants that became increasingly obvious over the course of the later Quattrocento could already begin to be discerned in the Santo high altar project.
In the context of the internal struggles of the Franciscan order that, at this time, centered especially on different interpretations of the rule of poverty, the evident cost and sumptuousness of Donatello's altar complex also would have served to make the Conventual friars' position on the issue of Franciscan poverty crystal clear: unlike their Observant brethren, the Santo Conventuals not only owned enough property and received enough income to pay in large part for this lavish project themselves, but they were also willing to use and display this wealth for all to see.
These images would have reminded the Conventuals of their direct links to the founder of the order, Saint Francis, through his closest companion, Saint Anthony, buried in the same church in which the friars themselves were gathered.
98) The symbolic implications of these poses - contrapposto bodies open towards the Madonna and consecrated Host set on the altar, but heads turned towards the miraculous arca in the transept - encapsulate two of the key associations the altar would have evoked for contemporary Conventual beholders: the rituals of the Franciscan-inspired liturgy centered on the Host at the altar on the one hand, and the Conventuals' privileged links to the founder of the order through the still-active presence in the Santo of the remains of his most important companion, Saint Anthony, on the other.