4) On the other hand, Wittgenstein was also concerned with the apparently more theoretical question of how it is possible for there to be value at all in a world of contingent facts
Here O'Connor argues, essentially following Aquinas, that the only answer to such questions, the only complete answer, is to be found in an ultimate necessity, indeed a necessary being, whose essence is to be: "If there is to be an ultimate, or complete, explanation, it will have to ground in some way the most fundamental, contingent facts
of the universe in a necessary being, something which has the reason for its existence within its own nature.
Beyond the contingent facts
, the basic question seems to me: Do they want to accept and protect the fundamental rights of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion that are the basis of every form of civil and pluralistic coexistence?
Interpretations, however, are never true--at least in this sense--because they merely express the values of the interpreter, which depend on contingent facts
about him, such as his personal history and the attitudes of his community.
It is argued that, ironically, contingent facts
about the temporal properties of consciousness are very difficult to square with presentism unless some form of mind--body dualism is embraced.
In other words, if one were to list all the intrinsic denominations of simple substances (contained in their complete individual concepts), there would be no other contingent facts
about the relations between the simple substances beyond what would follow from those intrinsic denominations.