is D-finite in X where [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] means constant term
extraction relative to the variables [t.
The allometric smoothing function was developed by using a mathematical smoothing method based on an allometric equation with a constant term
This suggests that heterogeneity in the slopes is at least as important as heterogeneity in the constant term
, on which the literature has usually focused.
Grabowski's and Baxter's  recommendation for dropping the constant term
is feasible since only one constant term
This model is similar to the constrained multiple objective linear programming model except that it does not restrict the weights to be nonnegative nor sum to one, and a constant term
is permitted in the combination equation.
As shown in Table 1, GDP, CRE and RIN series have a nonzero mean and a linear trend, thus ADF test is applied to these series with constant and trend terms, whereas ADF tests of INF and RATE series are implemented with only constant terms
Some examples of negative-valued covariates include demeaned data (often age and age squared) to make the constant term
more meaningful (Norton 1995; Norton et al.
By the same token, the constant term
will be lower than it would be in the absence of an initial undershooting.
In such cases we would need to include a non-zero constant term
in (5) to permit a stationary equilibrium with E[[zeta].
It is suggested that if the variables included in the system show growth then constant term
should not be placed into cointegrating space.
0] denotes the constant term
of f(x), from the definition of a(m) and Lemma 2, we have
Calculating the minimum sustainable unemployment rate by dividing the constant term
In section IV, I analyze the effects of the presence of a constant term
in the model and/or of a linear time trend in the data generating process on the finite-sample behavior of the test statistics.
Many empirical models of equity valuation simply assume a fixed growth rate of dividends that essentially gets absorbed into the constant term
of the equation.
All previous work in this area has examined the differences between bank presidents and board governors by comparing the constant term
in each group's voting function.