For the Control condition subjects, the same procedure was used, but, correct trials were always followed by the appearance of the same conditioned reinforcer
(CS1) and food.
Generalized conditioned reinforcers
were used in the majority of cases (14 of 22 participants).
The participants were therefore chosen for this study because the strings did not function as conditioned reinforcers
Moreover, children that lack these conditioned reinforcers
for observing responses are likely to find it difficult, if not impossible, to learn more complex skills such as language acquisition, generalized matching and becoming more aware of different stimuli in their environment.
are defined as initially neutral stimuli that have acquired reinforcing characteristics through the pairing of the neutral stimuli with a previously conditioned or unconditioned reinforcer (Cooper, Heron, Heward, 1988).
In the latter case, each response becomes an evocative stimulus for the next response, thus becoming discriminative stimuli that are conditioned reinforcers
(Skinner, 1938; Kelleher & Gollub, 1962; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950).
In that vicinity, something irregular is happening which functions simultaneously as a conditioned reinforcer
for turning the head/eyes and as an [S.
Suboptimal Choice by Pigeons: Value of the Conditioned Reinforcer
Determines Choice not the Frequency of Reinforcement
In addition, a behavior may be maintained as a result of the behavior itself serving as a conditioned reinforcer
The training procedures described below were used for both groups to first establish the sound of food pellet delivery as a conditioned reinforcer
and to train lever pressing.
In addition to any differences between real and hypothetical reinforcers, money is a conditioned reinforcer
whereas food is a primary reinforcer, and this distinction could have a profound effect on how delay and probability affect the values of the reinforcers.
2006a) showed that deprivation (or satiation) of attention made it more (or less) effective as a conditioned reinforcer
Thus, a stimulus that signals a greater improvement in time to reinforcement will be a more effective conditioned reinforcer
than a stimulus that signals less of an improvement.
The tangible accessibility of the final response manipulandum in the drug-taking chain may certainly function as a conditioned reinforcer
(an "incentive stimulus") for discriminative stimuli and responses that lead up it--those most distal from self-administration act (see Conklin et al.
The effectiveness of a conditioned reinforcer
is a function of the effectiveness, or value, of the unconditioned reinforcer (or an already established conditioned reinforcer
), which, in turn, is altered by the EO.