Whereas research supports both stimulus-stimulus and response-stimulus procedures for establishing preferred stimuli, a third method--first described by Greer, Singer-Dudek, and Gautreaux (2006) and later by Greer and Singer-Dudek (2008)--involves the acquisition of new conditioned reinforcers
as a function of observation, or observational conditioning (Singer-Dudek, Choi, & Lyons, 2013).
In other words, the participants had not acquired tokens as conditioned reinforcers
as a function of observation of their peers receiving and exchanging tokens.
If this analysis is correct, then it is the value of the conditioned reinforcer
after the choice is made, rather than the frequency of reinforcement associated with that choice, that determines whether the pigeons will choose suboptimally.
The newly conditioned reinforcers
for observing responses constituted acquisition of a developmental cusp.
A CMO-T involves procedures that manipulate indirectly acquired or conditioned reinforcers
, such as the tokens employed in the current study.
Reinforcement conditioning procedures for replacing stereotypy and enlarging students' reinforcement communities for books, toys, puzzles, games, television as conditioned reinforcers
for observing and selection.
Extinction of the drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior within the operant chain in the presence of respective discriminative stimuli and conditioned reinforcer
(under different establishing operations, i.
In that vicinity, something irregular is happening which functions simultaneously as a conditioned reinforcer
for turning the head/eyes and as an [S.
For example, if seeing a restaurant functions as a conditioned reinforcer
, it is concluded that there is an EO that established the value of food as a reinforcer.
That is, Participants B and C remained in baseline while Participant A completed the intervention condition until washer reinforcement was shown to have become a conditioned reinforcer
for Participant A's learning tasks.
In addition to any differences between real and hypothetical reinforcers, money is a conditioned reinforcer
whereas food is a primary reinforcer, and this distinction could have a profound effect on how delay and probability affect the values of the reinforcers.
Thus, a stimulus that signals a greater improvement in time to reinforcement will be a more effective conditioned reinforcer
than a stimulus that signals less of an improvement.
In summary, research developed to assess a conditioned reinforcer
account of stimulus function in chained schedules of reinforcement, by means of comparing response rates produced by both chained and tandem schedules, has failed to produce conclusive evidence.
Broadly defined, a conditioned reinforcer
is a once-neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcing function (Hendry, 1969; Hull, 1943; Kelleher & Gollub, 1962; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950; Williams, 1994).
The theory proposes that choice responding, and hence the value of a conditioned reinforcer
, is a function of the reduction in overall time to reinforcement correlated with the onset of a stimulus.