In both conceptual clustering [Michalski and Stepp 1983] and symbolic clustering [Gowda and Diday 1992] this representation is obtained without using an additional step.
It was stated in Stepp and Michalski  and Michalski and Stepp  that the groupings obtained by the conceptual clustering are superior to those obtained by the numerical methods for clustering.
In this sense, conceptual clustering and numerical taxonomy are not diametrically opposite, but are equivalent.
A conceptual clustering system in which clustering is done first is described in Fisher and Langley .
An important characteristic of conceptual clustering is that it is possible to group objects represented by both qualitative and quantitative features if the clustering leads to a conjunctive concept.
Conceptual clustering bears no formal semantics and is concerned with viewing a collection of schema types, having common semantic properties, as a higher form of abstraction, referred to as a cluster, and regarding this abstraction as a single atomic type.
Conceptual clustering, categorization, and polymorphy.