Jewish-Christian) state was defined as "monstrous" and heretical in the first few centuries of the Common Era
(by both the Church Fathers and the Rabbis), would have been worth engaging with, even slightly more on Dacy's part.
It is only in this very period, the first few centuries of the common era
, that one's religious orientation comes to be seen as something distinct from one's ethnic, political, and geographic identity, as something one can choose to become.
Despite Sperber's disclaimer that the volume is "selective in subject matter, partial in description, and synthetic in conception" (5), he has given us a valuable glimpse into the workings of cities in the Land of Israel in the first four centuries of the Common Era
I prefer to use Before the Common Era
, BCE, and Common Era
, CE, to make chronology less Eurocentric, the writer in this book, except for Frank, do not.
14-15); the adjective is a misleading hybrid that ignores the influential Judaism of the early common era
, relegating it to the role of acknowledged but superseded Christian precursor.
I remain engrossed in the first centuries of the common era
, a period when Jews read the biblical stories with new questions, much as we do today, and developed stunning and influential new ways of thinking about their relationship with divinity.
Starting in Neo-Assyrian times and extending on into the Common Era
, however, the biblical authors turned more and more to vertical translatability; that is, they drew on and developed earlier concepts of the biblical deity due to the pressure of changing imperial contexts that threatened Israelite, Jewish, and eventually Christian religious identities.
If we go back to the lesbian poet Sappho, born on the isle of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea, around the later part of the 7th century before the Common Era
, what evidence does that actually produce for this particular enquiry?
Part of a series that aims to provide comprehensive histories of modern nations with an emphasis on political and social history of the last forty years, this volume provides a survey of Bulgarian history from the roots of the first Bulgarian empire before the common era
to the present.
The book's sources of how Jews and Judaism go about the God-assigned task of mending a world broken by human sin are primarily the five books of Moses (the Torah), the Mishnah, and the two Talmuds, the latter three being respectively the work of the Rabbis of the second, fitch, and sixth centuries of the Common Era
, to be updated in the late twelfth century by Moses Ben Maimon in his Mishnah Torah ("The Torah Reviewed") and further still by Joseph Caro's sixteenth-century Shulhan Arukh ("The Prepared Table"), a condensed version of a much longer work.
Asked later to elaborate on that, he pointed out that polygamy was once acceptable in Judaism and was not outlawed until the 10th century of the common era
, and that biblical, language on marriage speaks of a man "acquiring" a wife--a unilateral transaction similar to acquiring property--as opposed to present-day Jewish thought that views marriage in terms of mutuality.
During the first six centuries of the Common Era
, Jewish scholarship produced a rich and diverse commentary on the Hebrew Scriptures known as the rabbinic midrash (at the root of midrash is the Hebrew word for interpreting).
As with so many Jewish holidays and holy days, Passover is centered in the home largely because the temple was physically destroyed in the year 70 of the Common Era
Hardly anyone would dispute the claim that the martyrdom of Christians in the early centuries of the Common Era
had a significant effect on Christianity's subsequent development.
In the year 200 of the Common Era
, Origen, an early church father, charged that Jews had committed the most heinous crime of all: the murder of Christ, for which they suffered the destruction of their nation.