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Many bird species readily eat common buckthorn berries (Sherburne 1972, Whelan and Dilger 1992, Schmidt and Whelan 1999), though the potentially cathartic properties of buckthorn make our finding surprising (Sherburne 1972).
While frugivory rates varied by species, approximately 28% of the fecal samples showed evidence of frugivory; these data suggested that birds were selective in their fruit consumption, mostly avoiding native dogwood and consuming more of the exotics like bella honeysuckle and common buckthorn.
Moreover, early successional areas such as shrublands are highly susceptible to invasive shrub species such as bella honeysuckle and common buckthorn, as these species are often "r-strategists" (Hobbs and Huenneke 1992, Rejmanek and Richardson 1996, Lundgren et al.
0 cm) per plot (Count) FruitIndex Total fruit index (sum of individual fruit indicies) HoneyFruit Bella honeysuckle fruit index BuckFruit Common buckthorn fruit index GrayDogFruit Gray dogwood fruit index RedOsierFruit Red osier dogwood fruit index OIiveFruit Russian olive fruit abundance #FruitSpp Fruiting shrub species richness Area Site area (ha)