In order to consistently reconstruct the ancestral state of the order, we reconstructed the ancestral pollination syndrome for the sister group of the Zingiberales, the order Commelinales
Mayacaceae are nested within Commelinales
that have more "specialized" xylem (see Fig.
orders Zingiberales and Commelinales
, but its precise relationships
, Commelinaceae are plasmodial, whereas Eriocaulaceae and Xyridaceae are probably secretory.
Parietal cells are lacking in some families of Commelinales
sensu Chase et al.
Of all orders that have been investigated for orbicules, only five remain without any positive observations: Asterales, Cannellales, Commelinales
, Vitales, and Zingiberales.
, a "monocot" order, the spiderwort order.
Asymmetry based on modification of elaborate monosymmetry is present in some monocots (among Asparagales, Commelinales
, and Zingiberales), some rosids (among Myrtales, and Fabales), and some asterids (among Lamiales, Asterales, and Dipsacales), and asymmetry by different anther height in otherwise polysymmetric, tubular flowers appears restricted to asterids (some Ericales, Gentianales, and Solanales).