However, under the cold conditions typical of the surface of Pluto, methane clathrates
are very stable and extremely strong, so they might easily mechanically support the observed bladed structures.
As Arctic seas, lakes, and tundra continue to warm, and more and more permafrost melts, scientists are not certain precisely how quickly methane and carbon dioxide from permafrost and clathrates
will reach dangerous levels.
A second possibility is that methane clathrates
from the ocean are dragged along into the erupting plumes and release their methane as they rise, like bubbles forming in a popped bottle of champagne.
To examine the composition of gas in the clathrate
phase of the samples, synthesized hydrates were decomposed under the temperature of 278 K and pressure of 0.
With very high levels of water, clathrates
The consequent heating of the Arctic environment may release methane from undersea clathrates
and increase the already significant release from permafrost.
If large amounts of methane are also released from clathrates
on the ocean floor, catastrophe is likely.
Topics include bulk nanocomposites of thermoelectric materials, thermoelectric inverse clathrates
, polymer thermoelectric materials, heat dissipaters, and medical applications.
1995) regarding the existence of clathrates
at the interface.
for viable gas storage media, clathrates
may offer an
Warming ocean water to a depth of 3000 meters, [up arrow] resulting in release of seabed methane-bearing temperature clathrates
as amplifying feedback of climate [right arrow] change.
the methane clathrates
or methane hydrates on the ocean floor.
Studies measuring isotopes of carbon, conducted by an international team of scientists, including CSIRO, have shown that methane clathrates
were not responsible for the large and rapid increase in methane when temperatures rose at the end of the last ice age (12 000 years ago).
As understanding and awareness of how current energy use affects local, regional and global environment and politics, the need for more renewable and sustainable energy supplies and greater energy-use efficiency becomes increasingly apparent, even though huge fossil resources remain -- especially as coal but also as oil sands, oil shales, methane clathrates
and other unconventional sources (Rogner 1997).
Pelagic fisheries, seabed minerals, and methane clathrates
may also prove interesting.