One reason chloramines
did not develop in the buckets of water may have been that the vapor density of some of the chloramine
compounds is significantly heavier than air.
In two highly publicized incidents in Washington, DC (Edwards and Dudi 2004; Tiemann 2005), and in Greenville, North Carolina (Renner 2005), tests of residential tap water showed high levels of lead following the introduction of chloramines
for disinfection purposes.
Hypochlorous acid and chloramines
increase endothelial permeability: possible involvement of cellular zinc.
Kidney dialysis patients also will have to remove chloramines
, as they did with chlorine, because water is introduced into the bloodstream during the dialysis process.
However, although chlorine kills many potential pathogens, it can also react with human wastes such as perspiration, urine, skin particles, and lotion in pool water to form chloramines
Each of these cities had increased levels of lead in tap water following a change in water treatment practices necessitated by a switch to chloramines
The presence of chloramines
at use-points is a clear violation of the Foreign Substances and Impurities instruction and could also be considered an Added Substance.
Ammonia will be added to the current chlorine purification system to create chloramines
, a more effective way of ridding water of contaminants that can develop if organic material gets in pipelines.
The Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR) applies to water systems that add a chemical disinfectant such as chlorine, chloramines
, chlorine dioxide, or ozone to drinking water during any part of the treatment process.
The increase followed the substitution in water-disinfection treatment from chlorine to chloramines
on 1 November 2002, in anticipation of the new Disinfection Byproducts Rule, later published on 4 January 2006 (U.
This is a "manual of practice" addressing issues of nitrification control that arise from the increased use of chloramines
as a residual disinfectant in drinking water distribution systems.
The Castaic Lake Water Agency, which imports and purifies water from Northern California, will add ammonia to its chlorine disinfection system, creating an additive called chloramines
are switching from chlorine to chloramines
as a disinfectant, which can significantly affect the performance of RO systems used to produce high-purity water.
Microbials, such as cryptosporidium and giardia, which can cause illness (diarrhea, dysentery, and hepatitis) and even death for individuals with weak immune systems, are traditionally addressed by disinfecting drinking water supplies with chemicals such as chlorine, chloramines
, chlorite, or bromate.
Doxey, CEO, developed the unique water purification units that purify water at the point-of-entry (POE) and point-of-use (POU) to remove the disinfectant, chlorine, lead, organic chemicals, biomass, chloramines
, unpleasant tastes, and odors.