Hugging the Trees: The Story of the Chipko Movement
, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1989.
The first paragraph refers to such struggles across the globe, from rubber tappers in the Amazon, villagers of the Chipko movement
in Northern India, and Ogoni dissidents in Nigeria to Navajo sheepherders, residents protesting hazardous sites in South Central Los Angeles and Memphis, and several American Indian tribes in the Pacific Northwest (3).
1973 Women living in Himalayan villages in Northern India begin the Chipko movement
to protect trees from clearing by commercial logging, which has begun to cause severe deforestation, soil erosion, and flooding in the region.
Some of the entries are Burakumin Liberation Theology, Chipko Movement
, Dalit Theology, Han/Han-pun, Mestzaje Consciousness, Minjung Theology, Mujerista Theology, and Pachamama.
The women of the Chipko movement
in India embrace the trunks even as loggers approach with their chainsaws.
If you look at the Chipko movement
and the Narmada Bachao ndolan, they have proponents of Gandhi's principles.
The most famous in the first category is the Chipko movement
of the early 1970s.
Swami Chidanand of Hardiwar blessed the struggle against Tehri Dam [in the hills of Uttar Pradesh, the dam will submerge 100 villages and damage the Ganga River] and the Chipko movement
[Indian "tree huggers" who have blocked loggers]," Shiva says.
Led mainly by women, the Chipko movement
asserts the traditional rights of villagers to manage their local forests rather than submit to management by a distant bureaucracy.
CONGRESS general secretary Rahul Gandhi's pro- poor credentials have got an endorsement from Magsaysay awardee and Chipko movement
leader Chandi Prasad Bhatt.
He derived inspiration from Sunderlal Bahugana's Chipko movement
in Uttar Pradesh, in which villagers used to hug trees to save them from being felled by the State, which then had no laws against felling of timber inside protected areas.
Shiva, a physicist, president of India's Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy, and author of Monocultures of the Mind, EcoFeminism and The Violence of the Green Revolution, is known internationally for organizing the Chipko movement
- in which women literally hug trees to prevent foresters from clearcutting.
A Gandhi-style charismatic leader of the peasant Chipko movement
, Sunderlal Bahuguna, is launching a broad-scale "Save the Himalaya" movement, spearheaded by a declaration signed by more than 100 Indian radical environmentalists, calling for preserving genetic biodiversity, giving more autonomy to local institutions, using natural resources to achieve regional self-sufficiency, and banning all commercial logging, mining, and building of dams.